(Compromise solution of a problem)
The problem of
traffic blocks in streets of old cities interests not only automobilists
all over the world, but pedestrians also almost in the same degree.
Indeed in traffic jams not only personal transport, but also public
transport stands. Of course, you may ask yourself, why this problem
is solved by no means, and dig in it till the end of time. But also
it is possible simply and unpretentiously to indicate the main stumbling-block,
which for some reason remains invisible, and to receive quite reasonable,
all-around decision of the problem, satisfying all or nearly all the
desirable properties, namely, technical, economic, architectural, organizational,
At that the presence
of a problem itself looks rather strangely. The problem is on hand,
and it is simple and clear. Scales of the problem are enormous, as it
is a world problem. To decide this problem the authorities as customers
will provide as much money as necessary, if not at their’s own will,
than under pressure of the population. And as for the consumers, there
is no need to search for them.. They are here, there and everywhere.
There are more technical opportunities of manufacture than it is necessary.
Man power is in large excess. It is possible to involve here as much
investment, private financial assets for the organization of contract
manufactures as it is required. What is needed is only to show the acceptable
solution. And this is the thing that neither authorities, nor the market
of private investments have at their disposal. A strange and ridiculous
picture of causeless deadlock. Though from the physical and technical
point of view there is no deadlock in this situation and never was.
I think, nobody
or nearly nobody start to deny, that the problem of jams is of technical
character and occurs at crossing of the transport streams on crossroads.
Certainly, the question is in the system origin of the problem, that
is any mass, almost suddenly arisen lacks of streets, highways, passes.
As to the auto accidents, which cause the jams, they are of accidental,
extreme nature and not of system one. Yet they often result from them.
But at liquidation of a problem of crossroads, the problem of the auto
accidents connected with them disappears accordingly.
At the same time,
for some reason all the attempts to resolve the problem avoid a separate
crossroads itself and bear global character, which expands even up to
the loss of connection with the ground. That is the roads based on the
roofs of houses, astonishing city trains, highways accompanied by demolition
of hundreds and thousands of houses, trestles over streets… But nobody
wants to descend up to such a trifle as a separate crossroads. As a
result everything rests on the crossroads bottleneck. And all one need
to do is to solve qualitatively and realistically the problem of the
most usual crossroads and to distribute this solution for all the crossroads
in general. That will be the most global and systematic solution of
So, up to date what
features characterize the problem itself and the obstacles in its solving?
They are as follows:
- Low average speed of movement (throughput of streets) because of stops
on crossroads with duration frequently exceeding time of travel between
- Inapplicability of typical constructions (road junctions) because
of narrowness of streets and crossroads;
- Long-term stop of movement at erection of typical constructions (underground
- Bulkiness of transport constructions for travel, if they are overground;
- Architectural discord between bulks of possible overground constructions
and surrounding buildings;
- Complexity of erection and consequently singleness of application
- High price of constructions.
And if to speak
about elimination of all the specified deficiencies simultaneously,
it is not possible if the existing approach to the solving of traffic
jams problem in the streets of old cities is used.. Conditions of solving
contradict each other physically, organizationally and economically.
However, the other principle of the problem solving can be adopted,
at which the listed deficiencies are eliminated all at once. For this
purpose it is necessary to determine, what is the lack of today’s estimation
of the essence of the traffic jams problem.
This lack is as
follows. All means of transport in the streets without dividing them
on types is considered as the source of jam problems and, accordingly,
a technical principle of solving the problem provides passing through
the additional constructions (overground and underground) also of all
types of transport without exception. And for this purpose powerful
and massive constructions are required.
In fact the problem
is caused by the sharp growth of number of automobiles and not all the
transport in general. On the contrary, the quantity of public transport
(buses, trolley buses, trams) was strongly reduced. Hence, to solve
the problem of traffic jams on crossroads it is enough to apply the
technical compromise, that is to provide continuous and simultaneous
passage through the crossroads in different directions of automobiles,
small special transport and public transport only, and for the cargo
and large public transport, including rail transport, the usual signaled
crossroads shall be left without changes. The limiting potential of
city streets is still far from being exhausted.
In other words,
today's deadlock is connected not with physical impossibility of solving
this problem, but with the perversity of attempts to remove it by means
of typical constructions, stereotyped thoughts and projects, which are
fantastic with regard to both inconsistency and expensiveness. If we
change the approach to solving this problem, we will probably receive
not completely ideal but, nevertheless, very simple and effective way
to road harmony without physical, technical, economic and aesthetic
Much things result
from the change of a problem solving principle. They are the doubtless
and plural advantages specified in the application for a patent for
the decision of this problem, and some inevitable, but unprincipled
restrictions. If the city was constructed a long time ago and intrusion
of transport breaks its primary harmony, it is only possible to dream
of the ideal compromise between the old and the new.. The real compromise
can be achieved only within the frames of laws of nature and it is necessary
to reconcile to this restriction. This compromise of simplicity, reality
and technical feasibility in the big scales is just what is described
1. Necessity in
tunnel and massive overground constructions disappears, for if only
the automobile transport vehicles pass through the constructions, constructions
themselves turn out to be considerably lightened.
above the ground become compact and occupy not all the width of the
streets above traffic way, but only width of its middle traffic lanes
not interfering the lane (lanes) located near the sidewalk. It
looks approximately like this.
3. From items 1,
2 it follows, that:
a) Constructions will be located at a sufficient distance to buildings;
b) Their designs may be fairly open-work, light, stocky (the height
of automobiles, minibuses is minor) and can be smoothly inserted in
the ambient space.
At that one shall
understand, that it is completely not necessary to pile up levels of
constructions for all the crossed streams on any of the problem crossroads.
Erection of nothing but the second level of construction will sharply
change the situation on the crossroads for the most intensive stream
of vehicles. Probably, it will be possible to regulate all the other
streams by means of usual adjustment of the ground movement, that is
by the change of intervals of traffic lights switch over. So
such crossroads can look.
Colouring of openwork
constructions influences the aesthetics very interestingly. They run
into surrounding architecture making a single whole. Intrusion of such
constructions into the aesthetics of an architectural environment (if
the concept of intrusion is in general applicable here) is far and incomparably
less, than it is done by advertising, which block up both streets, and
facades of houses in the cities.
4. Compactness and
light-weight of constructions results in the opportunity of their manufacture
from the unified, assembly modules of grooved, box-like, tubular shape
with round or polygonal section. Except for, probably, some separate
elements of interface of designs.
5. From item 4 it
follows, that the finished construction does not require foundation
works and other earth excavations which would result in a stop of movement.
Here it is possible to apply point foundation and support elements,
which can be installed at night or during weekend without a stop of
the day time traffic. At that support elements may be located not directly
under constructions. They can be at a distance from them and serve as
support for crossbars, farms, on which travel elements of constructions
6. From items 4,
5 it follows, that the whole construction (or its any independent and
finished part of any separate overpass *) can be assembled and simply
put on a crossroads at night or during weekend without a stop of the
day time traffic. From this it also follows, that the number of overpasses
(lanes) is not a constant value as it is typical of standard designs.
If required the new ones can be erected along with the existing lanes
or can be dismantled easily.
7. From items 1-6
it follows, that this is a new type of transport constructions, which
can be manufactured on the line as the unified modules, from which it
is possible to make up the constructions simultaneously for numbers
of crossroads of various configuration. That is to build not individual
constructions, but the row of constructions along the streets and highways.
8. As to the technical
essence of the offered solutions, they are bridge designs. Hence, they
can be supported in the required condition by means of columns, foundations
or arches with its base fixed in the ground and by means of cable-stayed
way, that is suspension by means of chains, hawsers, cores on towers,
pylons, girders and so forth.
9. Temporary overpass
constructions can be produced. They can be applied to travel above the
place of local road repair or at any works on distribution pipelines,
which require opening of roadbed. Such designs can be not only modular,
but also mobile, if installed on the wheel or tracked chassis for the
purpose of transportation.
for the elements of the construction of crossroads junction itself only
and no other elements.
Simultaneous movement in different
streams of automobiles
streams of trucks
for narrow streets
of any transport
is not stopped during erection
of size restrictions to the admitted transport
with surrounding architecture
the technical solution of the problem consists in the erection above
the crossroads of multilevel (as many levels as you wish) constructions
for admission of automobiles only. Thus the existing ground level emains
of inevitable restriction of a vertical size of transport for travel
under constructions, it is possible to pass through the crossroads the
vehicles with higher vertical size, than the height of a construction.
It is a question of maneuver. High vehicle turns on the crossroads to
the right, then turns back and having gone round perpendicular overpasses
it again turns to the right on the crossroads.
sometimes the necessity of travel and transportation of very bulky vehicles
and cargoes through the streets arises.. It can be the big truck crane
or the tower crane delivered on a building site, etc. Cargoes, which
can prevent movement, are usually transported at night. But here the
question is not in the stop of movement but in the junction constructions,
which prevent transportation of cargo.
this case it is necessary to remember, that the design of the construction
is modular. It can be quickly and easily split, shifted or raised as
a leaf bridge to pass the cargo and without problems returned to the
initial state. Certainly, it is possible to build on some crossroads
autonomously movable, i.e. rotating or rising constructions controlled
by their own mechanisms, if high vehicles go through this crossroads
quite often. Actuators, elements of devices can be of mechanical, electric,
internal combustion, hydraulic, pneumatic type, etc.
preferable parameters of constructions of the new type are as follows:
- Angle of inclination of ascent and descent is of 12-15 degrees;
- Height of the arch of the 2nd level is of 4-4.5 meters;
- Height of the arch of the 3rd level is of 6.5-7 meters;
- The distributed average load on the arch without columns at its length
of 100 meters is 40-50 tons if it is possible.
it turns out, that the scope of the automobile transport continuously
passing through the separate central lanes of the street bridge can
absorb all automobile transport which now occupies the whole width of
the street. Lanes at sidewalk will be unloaded for public transport,
It shall be taken into account that installation of junctions of new
type should not be started with city centre, if the problem of jams
has not local, but system, scale character. Unloading of highways, streets
should be started with periphery of problem zones, territories.